Basalt is a common extrusive volcanic rock that is formed by the earth mantle - lava - flow. It contains large and small (nano-size) crystals in a fine matrix of quartz. Basalt fibers are used to create a wide range of materials and products that can substitute steel, aluminum and create new types of material with unique properties.
Basalt fiber major benefits:
- High chemical resistance including resistance to strong concentrated acids;
- High thermal resistance and stability as well as low flammability;
- Relatively high mechanical strength, abrasion resistance and elasticity;
- Low strength degradation at high temperatures;
- Tensile strength of meshed stronger than comparable size steel meshes;
- High thermal and acoustic insulation properties;
- Excellent adhesion to polymer resins and rubbers;
- High electrical insulating properties;
- Renewable alternative to metal building materials;
- Ecologically clean and non-toxic to the end user;
- Cost savings of US Basalt product usage compared to similar products.
Nowadays fiberglass is widely used in various applications and for most critical and expensive products carbon fibers are used. However, these materials do not meet requirements to the modern materials in full extent. Fiberglass has certain restrictions in application specification like limitations in durability, application temperature ranges, chemical stability (especially in alkali media). Rare mineral boron oxide (B2O3) is used in fiberglass production technology. Carbon fibers mostly due to their high cost do not have high demand in mass and vast industrial application.
Basalt fibers and materials on their basis have the most preferable parameter of Quality & properties to the Price ratio when compared with other types of fibers.
US Basalt Product Advantages Over Other Types of Fibers
Table 1. Characteristics of Continuous Basalt Fiber (CBF) and other commercially available fibers
|Tensile strength, MPa||3000-4840||3100-3800||4,020-4650||3500-6000|
|Elastic modulus, gPa||79.3-93.1||72.5-75.5||83-86||230-600|
|Elongation at break, %||3.1||4.7||5.3||1.5-2.0|
|Diameter of the filament, micron||6-21||6-21||6-21||5-15|
|Temperature of application, deg. C||-260...+500||-50...+380||-50...+380||-50...+700|
|Average market price, USD/kg||2.5||1.1||1.5||30|
Table 2. Breaking strength-to-weight ratio for CBF of different diameters
|Filament diameter, micron||5||6||8||9||11|
|Breaking strength-to-weight ratio of
elementary fibers, kg/sq.mm.
High chemical resistance to water, salts, alkali and acids
Unlike metals CBF is corrosion resistant. Unlike fiberglass CBF is not affected by acids. CBF possess high corrosion and chemical durability properties in corrosive media like salts, acid and alkali solutions.
Table 3. Chemical resistance of CBF
|Filament diameter, micron
High thermal resistance
A range of temperatures for CBF long-time application is 200...600 deg. C
Short-term repetitive temperatures shock - up to 700 deg. C
Single temperature shock - up to 1000 deg. C
Compatibility of CBF with other materials
Continuous Basalt Fibers are highly compatible with other materials (metals, plastic, glues, resins, rubbers) during manufacturing process. Materials made from CBF can be processed using common “cold” (low temperature) technologies such as moulding, winding, pultrusion, sputtering and others.